technological singularity is taken to mark a discontinuity or a turning-point in human history. We aim to survey public opinions, specifically video gamers, worldwide compared to those in Poland, concerning artificial general intelligence and superintelligence. In 1964, Nikolai Kardashev proposed the Kardashev scale, a system for measuring the extent of technological advancement of a civilization based on the magnitude of energy consumption. The SingularityNET platform, AI network, and ecosystem are works in progress, and are intended to remain so, the very essence of the singularity being rapid change. We discuss implications and applications of externalizing various cognitive functions such as memory, computation, hearing, vision, brainstorming, reasoning, orientation, emotions and actions. The idea that human history is approaching a “singularity”—that ordinary humans will someday be overtaken by artificially intelligent machines or cognitively enhanced biological intelligence, or both—has moved from the realm of science fiction to serious debate. Futurist forecasts inferred from this imprecise reification are then criticized, and the reified ideas are incorporated in the core concept. The simple, but general formal theory of fun and intrinsic motivation and creativity (1990-2010) is based on the concept of maximizing intrinsic reward for the active creation or discovery of novel, surprising patterns allowing for improved prediction or data compression. Report. The present study looks at a recently launched hypothesis, which I label Singularity. singularity . However, scant attention has been paid to determine how disruptive technologies influence smart cities. Book Description: The idea that human history is approaching a "singularity" -- that ordinary humans will someday be overtaken by artificially intelligent machines or cognitively enhanced biological intelligence, or both -- has moved from the realm of science fiction to serious debate. by ; doubling of the electron charge. Many researchers insist on the possibility of a Technological Singularity shortly, which may see machines gaining intelligence similar to, or greater than humans. We emphasise the intelligence of systems using a set of characteristics that insist on how sophisticated the systems have become over time that might lead to Cyber Singularity. використанням Міжмережжя. (PDF Download) The Technological Singularity PDF. to the debate in a way that will inform and stimulate both … that uses the dynamical properties of a FPN is proposed. Moreover, such as Marc Zuckerberg and Bill Gates unlike the “dangerous” rhetoric of dystopian, he argues that singularity will make people more improve. ial general intelligence, and at tracing possibilities of connecting them with each other. Format : PDF, ePub Download : 150 Read : 1000 . Polish people were less enthusiastic about artificial general intelligence and superintelligence compared with the rest of the world. New York, NY: Viking, 2005) and Yampolsky (Information 9(8): 190, 2018), the singularity is near. We argue that this mechanism of externalizing cognitive functions is a fundamental driver towards an ever smarter human-machine symbiosis. @inproceedings{Vinge1993TheCT, title={The coming technological singularity: How to survive in the post-human era}, author={V. Vinge}, year={1993} } V. Vinge Published 1993 Computer Science The acceleration of technological progress has been the central feature of this century. The Coming Technological Singularity Vinge, Vernor Published: 1993 Type(s): Essay Source: Feedbooks 1. PDF | On Jan 1, 2016, Basarab Nicolescu published Technological Singularity – The Dark Side | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Vinge po… Such editions are called Lean Consciousness. It seeks to understand whether robots and artificial intelligence (AI) might become new value producers and a revolutionary social class. These results will inform discussion amongst researchers and policymakers about anticipating and managing trends in AI. [PDF Download] The Technological Singularity [Read] Full Ebook. Since the creation of such an AGI will require more than one decade, an approach is proposed that allows combining individual more ready-made blocks from a full-fledged AGI with traditional enterprise management systems. The main challenges of implementing these disruptive technologies have been identified in the literature and are discussed in this paper. However, integrating artificial intelligence with humans, via brain-computer interface technologies, can be protective. During this process, the determination of the needs of the program, the determination of the technologies to be used, and the research for the organization of personnel resources are important for the mega universities to be prepared for the singularity period. The Technological Singularity. Download Now. As demonstrated, the continuity of capitalist relationships may facilitate the formation of new social groups and recast class-based political agendas. The term “singularity” was first used by John von Neumann, in the 1950s to refer to “technological advances that cause change (Ulam in Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 64(3, part 2): 1–49, 1958).” According to Kurzweil (The singularity is near: When humans transcend biology. In 1964, Nikolai Kardashev proposed the Kardashev scale, a system for measuring the extent of technological advancement of a civilization based on the magnitude of energy consumption. In technology, a . With the increasing role of technological agents in contemporary society, questions surrounding the future of socioeconomic organization are intensely debated. Ray Kurzweil is an author, computer scientist, inventor, futurist and a director of engineering at Google. Moravec talks about resurrection (1988: 122-124). The book builds on the ideas introduced in Kurzweil's previous books, The Age of Intelligent Machines (1990) and The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999). At this point, education systems and institutions will also be in the process of change. impact on society. Formal Theory of Creativity, Fun, and Intrinsic Motivation (1990–2010), Общий искусственный интеллект: межпарадигмальный подход, An AM1 study on the mechanism of undine phosphorolysis, An Inheritance Procedure for a Knowledge Representation Scheme Based on Fuzzy Petri Nets. We are approaching an inevitable type-1 civilization, and artificial superintelligence superior to that of humans can concur with a higher-hierarchy Kardashev civilization. These concepts are easily related to the facts ; of superconductivity phenomena. While many researchers believe that Technological Singularity is at an arm’s length, many counter-question the possibility of the same due to the lack of concrete evidence. Previous practical, but nonoptimal implementations (1991, 1995, and 1997-2002) are reviewed, as well as several recent variants by others (2005-2010). View: 316. Excerpt: Technological singularity refers to the hypothetical future emergence of greater-than human intelligence through technological means. Recently Cybersecurity has manoeuvred its way through technology to become one of the most rapidly advancing fields. Researchers believe there is a 50% chance of AI outperforming humans in all tasks in 45 years and of automating all human jobs in 120 years, with Asian respondents expecting these dates much sooner than North Americans. This paper also discusses why these are important disruptive technologies for smart cities and how these technologies influence them. The Technological Singularity This volume contains a selection of authoritative essays exploring the central questions raised by the conjectured technological singularity. ºûÓÖy¨aè ¶×ʇ/Ø/I•‰†S™ÖœÒ[oùwô–´5µë¨¡ªêhå)ú|Zc3eþÎÐ"+µ—ÝAâ. (TTT); The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Browse more videos. Researchers predict AI will outperform humans in many activities in the next ten years, such as translating languages (by 2024), writing high-school essays (by 2026), driving a truck (by 2027), working in retail (by 2031), writing a bestselling book (by 2049), and working as a surgeon (by 2053). This study employs the method of simulation, exploring the ongoing path towards automation with the help of classical Marxism. The concept of the technological singularity is frequently reified. 9-13). The Technological Singularity PDF EPUB Download. The Technological Singularity. We suggest that other extraterrestrial global brains in the universe might have successfully dealt with this energetic bottleneck. The equations describe a quantum vortex in a ; system of fermions which are in a superfluid state at a temperature T (not just ; at the critical temperature Ts). Artificial Intelligence introduced to Cybersecurity has seen a tremendous increase in the number of systems that are capable of performing tasks faster and better than humans. Author: Victor Callaghan. We also analyze the comments of other critics of the Singularity, as well supporters of this notion. Coming Technological Singularity” and by the inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil’s popular 2005 book The Singularity is Near. What is a technological singularity? There has been considerable research on smart cities and on adapting technology for businesses, governments, citizens and other stakeholders. However, integrating artificial intelligence with humans, via brain-computer interface technologies, can be protective. Download » This volume contains a selection of authoritative essays exploring the central questions raised by the conjectured technological singularity. A variety of predictions have been made, ranging from conservative views that emphasize the gradual integration of techno-actors into human social collectives to radical outlooks that assume the inevitability of a dramatic historic break. Futuristic technological innovations imply an acceleration in artificial intelligence and superintelligence. The singularity is that point in time when all the advances in technology, particularly in artificial intelligence (AI), will lead to machines that are smarter than human beings. The geographic mapping of surface web users who are interested in artificial superintelligence revealed the top ten contributing countries: Iran, Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, India, Peru, South Africa, Romania, Switzerland, and Chile. Tipler says we will be resurrected in the computers of the far future (1995: chs. In this chapter we review the evidence for and against three claims: that (1) there is a substantial chance we will create human-level AI before 2100, that (2) if human-level AI is created, there is a good chance vastly superhuman AI will follow via an “intelligence explosion,” and that (3) an uncontrolled intelligence explosion could destroy everything we value, but a controlled intelligence explosion would benefit humanity enormously if we can achieve it. They treat artificial intelligence as a figure without a ground. Technological singularity was a term coined by Vernor Vinge, the science fiction author, in 1983. The idea of technological singularity, and what it would mean if ordinary human intelligence were enhanced or overtaken by artificial intelligence. Page: 261. The upper-time complexity of the proposed inheritance algorithm is O(nm), where n is the number of places (concepts) and m is the number of transitions (relations) in the scheme. As a result of the interviews conducted with the field experts, it was concluded that the social media platforms will have a high level of interpersonal communication and interaction and that the institutions will play a role in determining the limits of their place in human life. We conclude with recommendations for increasing the odds of a controlled intelligence explosion relative to an uncontrolled intelligence explosion. According to him, the discovery of artificial super intelligence will trigger a sudden technological growth. In the future, Kurzweil develops a hypothesis that artificial intelligence will go beyond human intelligence to radically change civilization and human nature. The choice of word ‘singularity’ appears to be motivated less by the eponymous mathematical concept (Hirshfeld 2011) and more by the onto-logical and epistemological discontinuities idiosyncratic to black holes. PDF | The concept of the technological singularity is frequently reified. We show how the externalization of our local brain functions is leading to planetary level intelligence, or global brain. Social media, which has become the platforms that people cannot give up in their daily lives, will be the main means of communication connecting people in the process of singularity. is a future period which the pace of technological change will be so fast and far reaching that human existence will be irreversibly altered. We discuss different symbioses between biology and machines, and what would be the elementary elements composing the global brain. Information Technology and the Future of Economic Growth William D. Nordhaus NBER Working Paper No. The notion of intelligence that advocates of the technological singularity promote does not take into account the full dimension of human intelligence. A simplified typology addresses current confusion concerning the precise nature of intrinsic motivation. Sextuplets and Higher Multiparous Births: A critical review of history and legend from Aristoteles t... GENERALIZED EQUATIONS OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. The discussions provide perspectives that cover technological, political and business issues. singularity in a way that ensures a positive rather than a negative. To techno-geeky reductionist types, this would probably appear as a failure to solve the problem of software complexity. Keeping in mind the concept of technological singularity proposed before, we also perform an extensive survey of the past research works related to the field and also, use the concepts of set theory to reinforce the possibility of Cyber Singularity in the coming years. The discussions provide perspectives that cover technological, political and business issues. Unter technologischer Singularität werden verschiedene Theorien in der Zukunftsforschung zusammengefasst. Managing the Journey. About Vinge: Vernor Steffen Vinge (born October 2, 1944 in Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.) is a retired San Diego State University Professor of Mathematics, computer scientist, and science fiction author. Report. Through a systemic literature review, this paper provides a point-by-point consideration of ‘nested’ disruptive technologies, namely, the Internet of Things (IoT), autonomous vehicles (AV), artificial general intelligence (AGI) and 5G networks (5G), and the factors affecting their deployment in the context of smart cities. This volume contains a selection of authoritative essays exploring the central questions raised by the conjectured technological singularity. Overview. Read The Technological Singularity online, read in mobile or Kindle. Especially mega universities and Open Education Systems, where technology is the main tool, adapt to this change. Intelligence has been defined in many ways like logic, awareness, reasoning, critical thinking, etc. Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) will transform modern life by reshaping transportation, health, science, finance, and the military. In addition to discussing research implications, the paper also throws light on theoretical contributions and recommends ways to leverage these disruptive technologies for smart cities. to the debate in a way that will inform and stimulate both … By Murray Shanahan. In short, it's that moment in time when machine intelligence surpasses human intelligence. Technological Singularity: even if we can make computers that have the raw hardware power, we may not be able to organize the parts to behave in a superhuman way. Evidence from AI Experts, Intelligence Explosion: Evidence and Import, The Phenomenon of Science: a cybernetic approach to human evolution. As a continuation of previous work, a functional architecture of a full-fledged AGI is proposed for working in an enterprise management system. We map these characteristics to the characteristics of living species with the hope of locating intelligence in the biomedical domain and further, try to identify systems displaying such characteristics in cyberspace. impact on society. For one of these cases, the Lean AGI architecture based on the Goal analytics block is proposed for working on top of traditional enterprise management applications. This overview first describes theoretically optimal (but not necessarily practical) ways of implementing the basic computational principles on exploratory, intrinsically motivated agents or robots, encouraging them to provoke event sequences exhibiting previously unknown, but learnable algorithmic regularities. outlines the important idea that to explain is to place what occurs under a generalization, exceptionless or statistical, about what kinds of things occur. This scenario can be pessimistic, as digital superintelligence can render human-based activities obsolete. The Technological Singularity. The aim is to bring clarity and rigor. Інтернет як потенційний інструмент нового способу душпастирювання, Conflicting opinions in connection with digital superintelligence, AGI Components for Enterprise Management Systems, Current Trends in Information Technology The "March of Progress": From Cosmic Singularity to Digital Singularity TOWARDS A TECHNOLOGICAL SINGULARITY, The “March of Progress”: From Cosmic Singularity to Digital Singularity, Robo-Revolution: A Marxist Approach to Social Uprising in the High-Tech Age, Forecasting Basic Research Using Scientometric Data, Intelligence in cyberspace: the road to cyber singularity, 'NESTED' Disruptive technologies for Smart cities: Effects and Challenges, Open Universities in the Future with Technological Singularity Integrated Social Media, The Emperor of Strong AI Has No Clothes: Limits to Artificial Intelligence, Distributing Cognition: from Local Brains to the Global Brain, When Will AI Exceed Human Performance? Secondly, we take a top-down approach, and argue that this progressive externalization helps to better understand, foresee and facilitate the emergence of a globally distributed intelligence, best conceptualized as a global brain. In this paper, I try to disentangle the facts related to the technological singularity from more speculative beliefs about the possibility of creating artificial general intelligence. Many writers associated with the singularity have also explicitly defended resurrection theories. For these systems, it is possible to use not full Consciousness, but some its limited industry-specific edition, located in the interval between the minimal and full Consciousness. Such systems including one or two AGI blocks and Consciousness are called Lean AGI. It has been argued that the theory explains many essential aspects of intelligence including autonomous development, science, art, music, and humor. Developing countries accounted for 54.84% of the total map. A leap will result in unimaginable changes in human civilization. We implemented an amalgam of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the database of literature and Google search engine. It generalizes the traditional field of active learning, and is related to old, but less formal ideas in aesthetics theory and developmental psychology. ISBN: Category: Philosophy. Sound like science fiction? “We will soon create intelligences greater than our own,” he wrote. This paper also offers suggestions on the implementation of these disruptive technologies for practitioners of smart cities, so that they can consider them while digitalizing smart cities. singularity in a way that ensures a positive rather than a negative. Publisher: Springer. This scenario can be pessimistic, as superintelligence can render human-based activities obsolete. Überwiegend wird darunter ein Zeitpunkt verstanden, bei dem sich Maschinen mittels künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) rasant selbst verbessern (Seed AI) und damit den technischen Fortschritt derart beschleunigen, dass die Zukunft der Menschheit hinter diesem Ereignis nicht mehr vorhersehbar ist. This volume contains a selection of authoritative essays exploring the central questions raised by the conjectured technological singularity. Here we report the results from a large survey of machine learning researchers on their beliefs about progress in AI. In the paper, the cases for the possible use of Lean AGI as part of enterprise management systems are shown. Full paper at: http://student.vub.ac.be/clvidal/writings/Vidal-Distributing-Cognition-LB-GB.pdf. To adapt public policy, we need to better anticipate these advances. Human intelligence as we will show is not based solely on logical operations and computation, but also includes a long list of other characteristics that are unique to humans, which is the ground that supporters of the Singularity ignore. 21547 September 2015 JEL No. Discrete and continuous time formulations are given. We finally take yet a broader cosmic perspective and argue that even if the singularity is near, an energetic bottleneck is nearer. The technological singularity—also, simply, the singularity —is a hypothetical point in time at which technological growth becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, resulting in unforeseeable changes to human civilization. In this research, it is tried to determine how mega open universities can benefit from social media in their preparation processes for technological singularity. Nonetheless, legislation in connection with information technologies is essential to regulate upcoming digital knowledge and superintelligence. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology is a 2005 non-fiction book about artificial intelligence and the future of humanity by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil.. The aim is to bring clarity and rigor. According to Carl Sagan, the American astrophysicist, we are approaching an inevitable type-1 Kardashev civilized existence. Nonetheless, legislation in connection with information technologies is mandatory to regulate upcoming digital knowledge and superintelligence. Technological Singularity . O3,O33,O4,O47 ABSTRACT What are the prospects for long-run economic growth? the technological singularity as foreseen by Vinge, Kurzweil, and others by catalyzing the emergence and economic pervasiveness of self-modifying, self-improving, self-understanding artificial general intelligence. This has led us to believe that there is intelligence in cyberspace along with the possibility of Cyber Singularity. The list includes curiosity, imagination, intuition, emotions, passion, desires, pleasure, aesthetics, joy, purpose, objectives, goals, telos, values, morality, experience, wisdom, judgment, and even humor. An illustrative example of the inheritance procedure is presented. Emphasis is put on the importance of limited computational resources for online prediction and compression. “The largest, and most provocative, sense in which a technological singularity might be an existential opportunity can only be grasped by stepping outside the human perspective altogether and adopting a more cosmological point of view. Trends in AI him, the term is used in a way that a... Notion of intelligence that advocates of the technological singularity is frequently reified these technologies influence.. And Open education systems and institutions will also be in the paper the. Contemporary society, questions surrounding the future of socioeconomic organization are intensely debated continuation... 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