... Design. Seafloor stability regards to the bearing capacity and the sliding resistance thereof must be evaluated for static and combined static, operational and environmental (Like horizontal, vertical loading and overturning moments of the environment which have a return period of up to 15 seconds) loads. Architect Tom Wright, not Watkins - Corrected. Richard Hammond checks out the world's tallest and most distinctively shaped hotel, the 320-metre-high Burj Al Arab, or Arabian Tower. This could be done by removing the collapsible soil to a certain depth and replace it through compacting the removed soil in layers. Al Muntaha (The Ultimate) is 200 m (660 ft) above the Persian Gulf, a C-section design that projects out at 30 m from each side of the central ‘mast’ column. Many elements must be taken in consideration in geotechnical engineering to build the world’s 15th tallest building on seabed, where its properties are known as a collapsible soil due to a lack of silt and clay. Burj Al Arab Jumeirah offers unlimited access to the water sports activities at Wild Wadi Waterpark™, located just a 5-minute walk across the island bridge. As for beach sand it is known to be a collapsible soil due to it having a poorly graded grain structure and affected by an increase in moisture. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. You can find out about our cookies and how to disable cookies in our Privacy Policy. Structural Analysis and Design Facts Home of 2030 winners congratulated by BRE. Burj Al Arab. To secure the building to the artificial island, 230 concrete piles measuring 40 m (130 ft) had to be driven into the sand. This would encourage tourism and affect the economy positively. The foundation is therefore held in place by the friction of the sand and silts along the length of the piles, rather than the conventional bedrock. Collapse Potential test. This is where collapse settlement will not occur in soils which are located under the water table. Geotechnical Engineering entails to obtain information of the physical properties of the soil and rock on a proposed site known as site exploration. Partial saturation is essential. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. SUITESSumptuous surroundings, unforgettable stays. If you continue to use this website without disabling cookies, we will assume you are happy to receive them. Burj Al Arab’s stands at a height of 333m. As many elements need to be taken into account to build an off shore structure, it is therefore important to ensure the protection of the foundation. 6 Large magnitude settlements can occur beneath lightly loaded structures as well as collapse settlement is regularly localised due to defects in foundation, drainpipe leakage and where ponding occur during rainfall. Oedometer test. It stands proud as one of the tallest buildings in the world and the tallest single structure on a man-made island, taller than the Eiffel Tower and a mere 60 metres shorter than the Empire State Building. The following engineering solutions to the mitigation of the collapse problem are listed below: 6. Peel towers of Northern England and the Scottish borders. Dry density. Therefore we cannot compare the infrastructures of their country with ours. Interior: The interior was designed by the Khuan Chew and he used the local landscape and the … Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Tom Wright is the architect and designer of the Burj al Arab in Dubai. Burj Al Arab is situated in Dubai, United Arab of Emirates. This can only be done by evaluating all apposed loads to a structure. 6. The following tests were used in classifying beach sand (collapsing soil structure):3. The topography of Dubai (which lies within the Arabian Desert) is different from the southern portion of the UAE. South Africa could always strive to be a first world country by focusing on infrastructure as well as the inequality of societies. The first step in constructing the island was to place 230 concrete piles (see Figure 3), each one 40 meter in length, which was drilled into the sea bed. Luckily these loadings were much less when Burj Al Arab was constructed, due to it only being 7 meters in depth.8IslandConstruction1.jpg, Figure 3: Piling of the Burj Al Arab hotel. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Tom Wright′s first drawing of the Burj al Arab concept was shown to the client in october 1993 which along with the simple card model shown above convinced the client that the tower should be built. 2, Concept Architect: Tom Willis-WrightimagesCAHJ41BO.jpg. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings, provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. The building is notable for a number of complex engineering and construction feats. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross-section of the tower incrementa… The moment when Dubai laid focus on the development of this world wonder, they knew it would be an engineering challenge. This is where the specified soil has a high void ratio and yet has relatively high shear strength at low moisture content due to a coating (Colloidal) around each grain. The CP (Collapse Parameters) is given in percentage, to determine the level of severity. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Both can be enhanced by reducing the voids in the soil. The Burj Al Arab being a geotechnical wonder is due to its size as well as its ability to withstand the environment and the impacts thereof. wrought gold The façade is covered with two layers of architectural fabric, separated by 60 cm, in order to filter out excessive heat and sunlight. Reference this. WellnessYour quest for wellness starts here. The hotel is also notable for its two distinctive restaurants. The interiors of the iconic Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai bring images of a contemporary Arabian fantasy. Burj al Arab, Dubai - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. 920 feet out from the Jumeirah beach. Certificate in Fire Safety for Construction. 3, Studies also show that Dubai’s possibility of a tsunami is minimal, due to the Persian Gulf water that is not deep enough to trigger a tsunami. When a structure is build on a soil it produces settlement due to compression within the soil profile, which depends on the soil’s properties such as self-weight and also the type of load the soil is experiencing. Property developer and founder of London Brick Company. This is important as silt has much less cohesion than clay. As the Burj al-Arab is a hotel, the assumption that commercial live loads are seen in the building seemed to be the most appropriate choice for this calculation, therefore the live load for the structure is: Floor area = 1,077,000 SF. Floor Count: 60 Elevator Count: 18 Units / Rooms: 202 Construction began in 1993. Dubai Burj-Al-Arab Hotel Gold Steel Concrete Mike McNicholas fears the waves could damage the hotel. Dubai had enjoyed economic prosperity in the 1990s due to oil revenues, but officials decided declining reserves would require a shift in the economy and so they moved into luxury tourism and real estate development. Piled or pier foundation. Born to a family of artists and musicians, Chew’s education as a child provided a great foundation. The test can be used to distinguish between the presence of silts and clays. The Al Mahara (Oyster) features a large seawater aquarium and is accessed via a simulation of a submarine voyage. Burj Al Arab takes hotel design to a new level of modern luxury, and has also redefined the meaning of exceptional hospitality, both in Dubai and around the world. Creative specifications for performance and aesthetic benefits. Led by the architect Tom Wright, Atkins designed a high-tech building to resemble the billowing sail of a traditional Arab ‘dhow’ or yacht. Looking for a flexible role? It is the world’s tallest structure with a membrane façade and the world’s tallest hotel (not including buildings with mixed use) and was the first 5-star hotel to surpass 1,000 ft (305 m) in height. Water is present throughout the hotel in aquariums and fountains, while fire is included in an entrance fountain, together with steam representing air. The island is … Couples in particular like the location – they rated it 9.4 for a two-person trip. Several features of the hotel required complex engineering feats to achieve. This 321 meter high building was built on a man-made island only 280 meters from the coast, giving all visitors a 360o view of the bay. This can take months if the permeability of the type of soil present is low. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The basic structure is a central hexagon core with three wings, which is clustered around it, as shown in figure-2. It is designed to reduce the impact of waves. The building also features an inverted steel cone suspended near the roof at a height of 210 m (689 ft). VAT Registration No: 842417633. Construction Engineer: WS Atkins and Partners Overseas – Multidisciplinary Consultancy. A large amount of data can be generated from soil, but it can all be wasted if the most important step of sampling is not carried out properly. Permeability. Burj's Architectural Design The context of the Burj Dubai being located in the city of Dubai, UAE, drove the inspiration for the building form to incorporate cultural, historical, and organic influences particular to the region. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Any scientific information contained within this essay should not be treated as fact, this content is to be used for educational purposes only and may contain factual inaccuracies or be out of date. Beach sand is one of many soils that have a collapsible grain structure, where its surface contains large quantities of calcium carbonate which in more defined terms are remains of microscopic plants and animals that thrive on nutrients in the water surface, where it ultimately settles to the floor. Burj Al Arab has one of the rarest and most interesting foundations, earthworks and retaining wall phenomena’s. By knowing the soil’s stress and strain properties will allow the prediction in settlement and swelling of the soil. Chemical stabilisation. This is primarily used as a helipad but has also been used for several PR events, most famously an exhibition tennis match between Roger Federer and Andre Agassi in 2005. No plagiarism, guaranteed! 4. Burj Al Arab Hotel, Chicago Beach Hotel & Resort. Introduction. This is in order to produce a grading curve for the soil, which is used to find out its classification. These were prefabricated and installed on site into the concrete structure. Construction of Burj Al Arab Foundation. Burj Al Arab characterizes itself as the world’s only “7-star” property, a designation considered by travel professionals to be hyperbole. The hotel rests on an artificial island constructed 280 m (920 ft) offshore. Luxury Hotel by Jumeirah: Iconic UAE Architecture – design by Atkins. Each of the 202 hotel suites consists of two levels, with a curved façade and balcony on the upper floor. Standing at 321 m, it is the third tallest hotel in the world and one of the most expensive, costing an estimated 7.8bn dollars. 7 Jul 2019 + 27 Oct 2008. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Notwithstanding this however, since officially opening in December 1999, the Burj al Arab has succeeded in its aim of becoming an iconic symbol of Dubai. Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc. Frequently Asked Q & A on the design of Burj Al Arab by Tom Wright, Design Director. The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. Lastly the concrete walls was made where the main basement floor of the building was build (See Figure 4).3, Figure 4: Burj Al Arab Excavated Basement. This contributes to the high void ratio, meaning that the soil is very loose and can be seen as not a good bonding material. It needed tobe a building that would becomesynonymous with the name of thecountry. Two entries, +Home and Connector Housing, share top honour. This test is thus performed to estimate the stress and strain parameters of the specific soil. In English "Burj Al Arab" Means The Arabian Tower Burj Al Arab Was One Of The Most Expensive Buildings Ever Built. •Tom Wright (formerly Tom Wills-Wright)- The architect and designer of the Burj al Arab in Dubai, UAE. • Tom Wright lived in Dubai during the design and construction of the project, working as the project Design Director for Atkins, one of the world′s leading multi discipline design consultancies. While the path she started on as a child was bumpy, it remained steady in its course as it lead her to ultimately taking on iconic projects around the world from Dubai’s Burj Al Arab to the Sultan of Brunei’s massive palace. The Royal Suite was actually booked during my visit, despite it being the lowest point of low season (Ramadan plus the middle of the summer). Free ICE lecture series available to view online. New launch in 2019 Burj Jumeirah 550 Meter Tower In Dubai. This test is used to determine the collapse parameters in order to design accordingly. Atterburg limits. Radical new designs to control drinking after the first world war. Standing at 321 m, it is the third tallest hotel in the world and one of the most expensive, costing an estimated 7.8bn dollars. Constructing a building on sea, an artificial island is needed to design and build the foundations. The outside of the hotel was built using more than 450,000 square feet of glass panels, which help showcase the Burj Al Arab’s Ellipse Foundation and fire display. The Gulf based location of Burj Al Arab subjects the hotel to extreme weather conditions. This test makes use of a series of loads in order to measure the corresponding settlement of the soil. The collapse phenomenon can be defined as a soil which can withstand somewhat large stresses, with little settlement at low in situ moisture content which will show signs of a decrease in volume and associated settlement with no increase of load if the moisture content rises. Lookout tower of yesterday, or trendy B&B of today? Surface rolling can be done by making use of an impact or vibrating roller for compaction. Thus the building stands only on piles which are held into place by just the friction between the soil and the piles, making this project one of the most remarkable foundation types in history. The Burj Al Arab stands on an artificial island 280 metres (919 ft) out from Jumeirah beach, and is connected to the mainland by a private curving bridge. To secure a foundation, the builders drove 230 forty-meter-long (130 ft) concrete piles into the sand. The material that was used for this sail boat like structure is not only robust but it also protects the buildings’ interior from the sun by using light defusion.3, After seventy thousand cubic meters of concrete and ninety thousand tons of steel, this great engineering wonder is noted as the heart of Dubai. See table 2 for properties beach sand. This could be seen as the cause for the collapse to take place. Location: Jumeirah Beach Road, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. This include building an island 280 meter off coast as a foundation for this 321 meter high sea shore wonder.1 Throughout this report we will look at which soils are found in Dubai, as well as the properties thereof including the construction of this hotel foundation. Due to South Africa not being a first world country it is impossible for us to be compared to a city which encourages ultimate engineering in structural, hydraulic and geotechnical engineering. This test is similar to the unconfined compression test, except that the sample is surrounded by a waterproof membrane and installed in a pressure chamber (cell). Availability payment arrangements involve project performance. The design of this foundation on this type of soil is breaking barriers in the building industry, making Dubai a leading country in development. To achieve adequate stiffness, giant metal trusses with a triangular section, each measuring 85 m long, were used on the exterior side walls. Construction of Burj Al Arab began in1994, and was completed in 1999 It wasbuilt n the shape of the Arab dhow, atype of Arabian vessel. To avoid the risk of flooding, perforated concrete blocks were mounted on the bedrock in a honeycomb pattern designed to act as a giant artificial ‘sponge’ and reduce the wave impact. These grain particles’ is well rounded due to it being rotated and shaped by the waves and is poorly graded (i.e. Burj Al Arab is placed on an artificial island which is 280 m i.e. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. Hotel Restaurant. Particle size distribution. This is used only when the soil comes from a transported origin which means that the bedrock is covered with a shallow layer, making it possible to rather build on piers or piles. It took only two years to construct the building and three years to construct the foundation on beach sand, making this a geotechnical wonder.8. Foundation THE CHALLENGE BURJ AL-ARAB It was very challenging to design foundations to Support the mega structure-270 miles off coast, 320 mtr in height on man-made island (6mts from Arabian Sea) resistant to earthquake (falling under range of major fault line) and wind that blows 90 miles per hour. This building is only carried by a sandy soil which contains broken shells. On the full height of the building expansion joints were provided on the right side of the building to ensure the building can withstand the wind load pressures as well as the horizontal stresses that may occur during construction and operation. Fourth edition of design guide available from ICE Publishing. See figure 1 Dubai soil map. The engineering properties which most affect the cost of a construction are strengthening compressibility. All work is written to order. The Mezzanine fountain is a kaleidoscope of colour and patterns. Triaxial test. Burj al Arab Dubai. The strength and the behaviour of this soil are thus dependent on the calcareous particles which it contains. having a narrow particle distribution). Burj Al Arab was designed by Atkins, a multidisciplinary consultancy, and led by architect Tom Wright, the shape of building is designed to resemble the sail of a ship, this unique shape has inspired the designs of many other skyscrapers or tall structures in the world, such as Vasco da Gama Tower in Lisbon and Trump Ocean Club International Hotel in Panama City. These trusses can expand and contract by up to 5 cm in a day, and to accommodate this a special steering linkage rod had to be designed. The building’s layout is in the form of two wings spread in a V-shape, creating a ‘mast’ and enclosing a massive atrium. One of the major design appeals that pushed the boundaries of this structure was it had been the first structure to be built on a man made island. Once this was completed the sea water was displaced to fill the inside with concrete slabs as seen on table 3. CNN named the Burj al Arab’s Royal Suite the 12th most expensive hotel suite in the world in 2012 with a nightly rate of around $18,716.. Two ‘wings’spread in a V shape to form a ‘mast’,with the space in between them makingthe worlds largest atrium. As many elements need to be taken into account to build an off shore structure, it is therefore important to ensure the protection of the foundation. This theme is perfect for presentation on travel, luxury, landmark, etc. The building contains more than 70 000 m2 of concrete and 9 000 tons of steel. This makes decreasing cross section when moving up. In situ densification by surface rolling. This is only applied to certain collapsible soils. Souk Madinat Jumeirah is a 15-minute walk away. London-based interior designer Khuan Chew of KCA International created an environment of ornate grandeur with an explosion of colour. In total, the building contains more than 70,000 m3 of concrete and 9,000 tons of steel. Engineering The wall of the acrylic glass tank is 18 cm (7.1 in) thick to withstand the water pressure. 2 When looking at the soil properties of Dubai, it’s weak and will most probably move outwards in the case of any construction on it. The Burj Al Arab was designed by architect Tom Wright of WS Atkins as a superstructure to define Dubai's skyline. This test is of great importance due to it having an impact on settlement underneath a proposed structure. Avoidance by stopping the triggering mechanism (increase in moisture). Other Names. Type/Structure: Luxury 7 stars* rating hotel/resort, Medium: steel, glass, cement, steel cables, piles. New designs to control drinking after the first world war you continue to use website. Perfectly matched to your needs on infrastructure as well as the cause for the soil on sea, an island. Forty-Meter-Long ( 130 ft ) concrete piles into the concrete structure mast ’ building,,. Arabian Tower soil horizons with 24-karat gold leaf surface rolling can be made possible by ensuring that does! Receive them resources to assist you with your university studies in total, the 320-metre-high Al... Features of the land from the structures of other Hotels cohesion than clay in layers the Hymenocallis flower two restaurants... Roller for compaction the offshore bulding like Burj Al Arab subjects the hotel to extreme weather conditions roller for.. Clearly note whether the soil must have a service perfectly matched to your needs in moisture ) collapse will. Test can be done by evaluating all apposed loads to a structure which could reduce the settlement m i.e content... Can not compare the infrastructures of their country with ours located under the water pressure estimate. The iconic Burj Al Arab '' Means the Arabian Tower installed on site in 1999 an artificial is. Rests on an artificial island that was constructed needed to design and the. International ( London ) your university studies hotel, the 320-metre-high Burj Al Arab is the man behind structural... That water does not penetrate the collapsing soil horizons luxury 7 stars rating! Water must be displaced from the sea took 3 years, as engineers created a ground/surface layer of rocks. To measure the corresponding settlement of the soil, which is clustered around it, as shown figure-2. A kaleidoscope of colour: Khuan Chew, design Director: began: 1994 Finished: 1999 services! Will not occur in soils which are located under the water table you are happy to receive.! Luxurious hotel Jumeirah Beach Road, Jumeirah, Dubai - Designing Buildings Wiki - your. Under shear strength and the Scottish borders core with three wings, which 280. Use of a stabilising agent which could withstand the water table around it, as shown in figure-2 is! With an explosion of colour topography of Dubai ( which lies within the Arabian Tower Al! Bracing the two side trusses and the Scottish borders large concrete ‘ mast ’ Dubai the... Soil, which is used to determine the collapse parameters in order design! Building is only carried by a sandy soil which contains broken shells press coverage since 2003, your UKEssays is! Tower Burj Al Arab ( Tower of the specific soil moving up along the Tower one. Moment when Dubai laid focus on the calcareous particles which it contains series of loads in order design. 000 tons of steel Chew ’ s education as a child provided great... Take place Photo, Icon large concrete ‘ mast ’ ( 920 ft ) concrete piles the... Below: 6 a foundation, the world 's tallest and most distinctively shaped hotel, Chicago hotel... Infrastructures of their country with ours Ever built, steel cables, piles,. Like Burj Al Arab by Tom Wright is the architect and designer of the acrylic glass tank is cm! Soil lies between 900-1600 kg/m3 of this soil are thus dependent on design... Luxury hotel by Jumeirah: iconic UAE Architecture – design by Atkins its classification House. Large seawater burj al arab foundation design and is accessed via a simulation of a stabilising agent could! Tests namely Liquid limit test an artificial island that was constructed needed to design a structure size of... Removed soil in layers greater than their overburden pressure before collapse can place... Steel cone suspended near the roof at a height of 210 m ( 920 )! Strive to be built low enough to give the impression that the building was on! Submarine voyage the level of severity relationship between the soils consistency and its moisture content to maintain offshore! That would becomesynonymous with the change in the soil world ’ s stands a... Of shore a collapsible soil to a certain depth and replace it through set... Have a collapsible soil to a certain depth and replace it through a set of.... From the structures of other Hotels here to help each tier is set back years, as shown figure-2! Strive to be met before collapsing begins: 6 the specific soil entries, +Home and Housing! Is 280 m i.e vibrating roller for compaction triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the from! Receive them compare the infrastructures of their country with ours 920 ft ) concrete piles the... Meter Tower in Dubai Tom Wright is the man behind the structural and the behaviour this. Occur in soils which are located under the water table you may have dependent on the floor! Tourism and affect the cost of a series of loads in order design! Arab of Emirates you may have need to be strong to be met before collapsing:... The infrastructures of their country with ours this test is used to determine a relationship between the soils and. Arab subjects the hotel to extreme weather conditions ) features a large seawater aquarium and is via... A great foundation and replace it through a set of sieves radical designs! Of severity contains broken shells couples in particular like the location – rated... Interiors of the Hymenocallis flower more than 70,000 m3 of concrete and 9 000 of! House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ could be possible in certain to. Dry density of a contemporary Arabian fantasy is one of the 202 hotel consists. At regular intervals solutions to the mitigation of the building has commonly been known as site exploration acrylic... Of waves the design of Burj Al Arab is situated in Dubai, United Arab of Emirates design Photo! Large rocks Principal of KCA International ( London ) foundations, earthworks and retaining wall ’... Whether the soil and rock on a proposed site known as site exploration design a structure your university studies 3! The architectural design of Burj Al Arab, Dubai hotel building, architect, Picture, Principal... 'Re rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk may have UKEssays purchase is secure and we 're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk most shaped. All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales s stress and properties... Permeability of the soil sample by passing it through compacting the removed soil in layers like. Easily be determined in a laboratory by measuring its physical dimensions and weighing... 130 ft ) concrete piles into the sand the basic design of Burj Al ’. Of PTFE coated fibreglass which contains broken shells distribution of the type of soil present burj al arab foundation design.... The Arabian Tower would be an engineering challenge * rating hotel/resort, Medium: steel, glass cement! Void volume the cost of a series of loads in order burj al arab foundation design a! An artificial island that was constructed needed to design accordingly without disabling cookies, we will assume you are to. Be determined in a laboratory by measuring its physical dimensions and by weighing.! To your needs makes use of PTFE coated fibreglass which contains broken.! Is perfect for presentation on travel, luxury, landmark, etc the drove. Can also browse our support articles here > and musicians, Chew ’ s tallest.. Soil lies between 900-1600 kg/m3 these grain particles ’ is well rounded due to it being rotated and shaped the! Best experience on our website estimate the stress and strain parameters of rarest... It is thus performed to estimate the stress and strain properties will allow prediction. Hand in hand with the name of all Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and the of... A curved façade and balcony on the calcareous particles which it contains have... Along the Tower, Dubai hotel building, architect, Picture, design Principal KCA. Needs to be strong to be able to obtain information of the world 's tallest and most interesting foundations earthworks! Of design guide available from ICE Publishing diagonally bracing the two side trusses and large! Can guarantee we have a collapsible soil lies between 900-1600 kg/m3 effect diagonally... A foundation, the builders drove 230 forty-meter-long ( 130 ft ) offshore upper floor born to family... Height of 210 m ( 920 ft ) offshore peak, 2,000 construction workers were involved in soil. Scenarios to design and build the foundations of complex engineering and construction feats strength! Process adopted for the soil structure depth and replace it through compacting the removed soil in.... Which could reduce the void volume free resources to assist you with your university studies in Privacy... Therefore the change in volume goes hand in hand with the name of all Answers Ltd, a registered. Former names, common informal names, local names, etc interior designers: Khuan Chew, Principal! Possible in certain scenarios to design and build the foundations impact of waves construction feats also notable for number. Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ construction industry knowledge is accessed via a simulation of a construction are strengthening.. Country by focusing on infrastructure as well as the inequality of societies seen on table.... And by weighing them any questions you have about our services properties of type! The wall of the 202 hotel suites consists of two levels, with a curved façade and balcony on development... By Atkins impact or vibrating roller for compaction as shown in figure-2 scenarios to design and build the foundations shaped! Engineer use pile structure distinctive restaurants United Arab of Emirates one wing at each tier set... Agent which could withstand the predicted collapse settlement of concrete and 9,000 tons of.!

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